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Chicago/Turabian - In-text Citations - The Basics

In Chicago formatting, instead of in-text citations in parentheses like in MLA or APA, you use notes instead, either an endnote or footnote. 

In the Notes and Bibliography system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary. Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document (If you aren't sure which to use, check with your professor).

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note, along with the bibliographic information for that source, should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced. A superscript looks like this¹.

Check out the OWL Purdue sample NB paper to see an example of how this looks.

The superscript corresponds with a footnote/endnote, which should comprise of a complete bibliographic "note" citation for a book, which corresponds to your bibliography entry. If citing the same source multiple times in the same paper, after the first full footnote citation, you can shorten it to author last name, title, and page number, and then use that throughout the rest of the paper, if needed.

General format: 1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

  • Example 1st footnote: Helga Prignitz-Poda. Hidden Frida Kahlo: Lost, Destroyed, or Little Known Works (New York, NY: Prestel Publishing, 2017), 35.
  • Example 2nd footnote: Prignitz-Poda, Hidden Frida Kahlo: Lost, Destroyed, or Little Known Works, 45. 

To see how the Author-date Sample paper differs, see this example.