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Author(s). Book Title. Edition number (if it is the second edition or above). Publisher's name; copyright year.

Example: Whole Book
  1. Gill R. The Physics and Technology of Diagnostic Ultrasound : A Practitioner’s Guide. 2nd ed. High Frequency Publishing; 2020.


Reference to a Chapter in a Book

When citing a chapter of a book, capitalize as for a journal article title; do not use quotation marks. Inclusive page numbers of the chapter should be given.

Example: Author(s). Chapter title. Editor, eds. In: Author, Book Title. edition. Publisher; Year: pages.

  1. Bluemke DA, Teague SD. Chapter 16: Imaging of Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy. In: Hodler J, Kubik-Huch RA, von Schulthess GK, eds. Diseases of the Chest, Breast, Heart and Vessels 2019-2022: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging. Springer; 2019:189-197.

Tip: When the editor of the book is also the author of the chapter, include the same name in both places.

  1. Riegelman RK. Chapter 11: Meta-analysis. In: Riegelman RK, ed. Studying a Study and Testing a Test: How to Read the Medical Evidence. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:99-115.



Journals Articles:

  • Author(s).
  • Article title.
  • Journal name, abbreviated and italicized
  • Year of publication (followed by a semi-colon)
  • Volume number
  • Issue number in parentheses
  • Part or supplement number (when applicable)
  • Inclusive page number(s) or e-locator
  • DOI, formatted as metadata (not as a URL)


Roll SC, Takata SC, Yao B, Kysh L, Mack WJ. Sonographic reference values for median nerve cross-sectional area: A meta-analysis of data from healthy individuals. J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2023;39(5):492-506. doi:10.1177/87564793231176009

Hahn RT, Abraham T, Adams MS, et al. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013;26(9):921-964. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2013.07.009


Notes: 11th ed. specifies NO period after the DOI.

Abbreviations for American Medical Association (AMA) style citations can be found by looking in the journal record in the NLM Catalog in PubMed. If your title is not in the NLM Catalog, the AMA Manual of Style 11th Edition offers advice for abbreviating journal titles in Chapter 13.10 "Abbreviations: Names of Journals."


Web sites:

  • Author(s) - (or, if no author is available, the name of the organization responsible for the site).
  • Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site).
  • Name of the website. (use "website" not "Web site")
  • Published date (if available)
  • Updated date (if available)
  • Accessed date
  • URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication].

Tip: Include as much relevant information as possible 

Example: (author)

Rainie L. The rise of the e-patient. Pew Research Center Internet and the American Life Project. October 7, 2009. Accessed January 11, 2012.

Example: (no author)

Air Quality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated June 28, 2021. Accessed July 28, 2021.