You have a few options for getting more support:
Edited book, only editors listed
Edited volume with authors
Works in Translation
Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Plato (385-378/1989)
Edition Other than the First Edition
Article, essay, or chapter in an edited work
Author last name, First initial of first name. First initial of middle name., & Author last name, First initial of first name. First initial of middle name. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In First initial of Editor's first name. First initial of middle name. Editor's last name & First initial of Editor's first name. First initial of middle name. Editor's last name (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI (if available)
Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references. List any edition number in the same set of parentheses as the page numbers, separated by a comma: (2nd ed., pp. 66-72).
Single Author in Print
Single Author in Journal article
If a DOI is included:
If no DOI is included:
Two Authors in a Book
Be sure to separate the author names with a comma, and use the ampersand (&) instead of "and."
Two Authors in a Journal Article
If a DOI is included:
If no DOI is included:
Three to Twenty Authors
List the authors by last names and initials. Commas separate author names, while using an ampersand (&) before the last name. **This is different from APA 6, which only required listing the first six authors before an ellipsis and the final author's name.
More than Twenty Authors
While this is a lot of authors, this is not uncommon, especially in the sciences. Start by listing by last names and initials in the order they appear; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.
Group authors can include corporations, government agencies, organizations, etc; and a group may publish in coordination with individuals. Here, you simply treat the publishing organization the same way you'd treat the author's name and format the rest of the citation as normal. Be sure to give the full name of the group author in your reference list, although abbreviations may be used in your text.
Entries in reference works (e.g. dictionaries, thesauruses, and encyclopedias) without credited authors are also considered works with group authors.
Government-related Group Authors
When a work has multiple layers of group authorship (When The Office of the Historian, which is a part of the Department of State, publishes something), list the most specific agency as the author and the parent agency as the publisher.
Electronic Source - Group Author
If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.
When the work does not have an author, or it is unknown, move the title of the work to the beginning of the reference entry and follow with the date of publication. Only use “Anonymous ” if the author is the work is signed “Anonymous.” (**This is a new addition to APA 7).
NOTE: When your essay includes citations in parentheses of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, a parenthetical citation of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 2003).
Blog or Website without an Author Listed
For a blog or website without an author listed, begin the reference entry with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki or blog that is publicly edited).
No date provided
If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
Citing a Wikipedia Article in APA
APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles in a special way. There are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.
Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.
The term "audiovisual media" refers to media that contain both audio components, visual components, or a combination of both. In general, the citation style for audiovisual media varies depending on whether the piece stands alone or is part of a larger work. The following examples provide sample references for some of the most common audiovisual sources.
Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited audiovisual sources. For a complete list of how to cite audiovisual sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
Film or video
Film or Video in another language
Single episode from TV Series
Note: if you are referencing a re-recorded version of a classical work, list that album title in brackets following the name of the album.
For more examples, such as a podcast, podcast episode or other media, refer to the OWL Purdue guide or the APA Manual of Style held in Lemieux Library in print.
@handle. (Year, month day posted). Full text of tweet. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from URL
Title of Tumblr blog. (Year, month day posted). First several words of Tumblr post (if any, otherwise omit)… [Tumblr post]. Retrieved from URL
Lastname, Firstname. (Year, month day posted). First several words of Facebook post... [Facebook update]. Retrieved from URL
handle. (Year, month day posted). First several words of Instagram post (if any)... [Instagram post]. Retrieved from URL
Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. (Year, month day posted). Title of YouTube Video. [Video file]. Retrieved from URL
Last name, first name [or username]. (Year, Month day). Caption of tiktok [video]. TikTok. URL.